First, according to a 2003 paper by Peterson in the Journal of Climate, “no statistically significant impact of urbanization could be found in annual temperatures.” In addition, for most of industrial history cities have not been much warmer than their surrounding countryside and some modern steel canyons channel heat away from the so-called “urban heat-islands.”
As for the advancing of glaciers, it is obvious that the stereotypical melting of glaciers does not encompass their entire frigid race, which brings up the claim that the highest peaks in CO2 correlate to cool temperatures. The most recent peak (or rise) in CO2 correlates to the Younger Dryas, which was cooler, but nonetheless marks sudden climate change. The peak before the latter occurred “130,000 years ago, when the planet last enjoyed a balmy respite from continent-covering glaciers” and the Arctic temperature matched today’s, according to Spotts in a 2006 article in the Monitor. And 450 million years ago during another peak, the earth was what some textbooks refer as a “sauna” in which giant lycophytes grew stout enough to become today’s precious, black sludge.
As for the central issue, the causation of CO2 with temperature, historical data does show a correlation, and modern statistical analysis like feedback loop comparisons of Alexiadis’ 2007 article(one of incredibly many) in ecological modelling to conclude, “anthropogenic carbon dioxide has become the main driving force in global warming, and even in the case of reduction of the emissions, the temperature will keep increasing for a certain time.”